How Will We Communicate In The Future?

How will we communicate in the future? In many  movies and science fiction novels the most  various communication technologies are proposed:  let’s think to Star Trek communicator, in  some ways very similar to our smartphones:  it even seems to have inspired the famous Motorola  StarTac and the iPad: Captain Kirk and the his  companions used a touchscreen laptop called  PADD. Or let’s think of the communication through  holograms projected through portable systems that  we see in the Black Panther or Star Wars movies.  Sometimes the inventions in science fiction  anticipate reality, but what is the current  situation? What communication technologies are  developing? Let’s try to find out in this video.Let’s start with Internet, the public access  telecommunications network that connects various  devices or terminals around the world. Its origins  date back to the now distant 29th October 1969  when a giant computer located in the  Stanford Research Institute in Menlo Park  (California) receives a text message consisting  of only two letters: “Lo”. It is the first message  sent online, using the technology known as  ARPANET: the ancestor of today’s global internet.  But what did that message mean? Nothing. Sent  from a room at the University of California at  Los Angeles, 600 kilometers to the south,  the system that was to deliver it crashed,  thus limiting a text to the first two letters  that should have read “login” instead.More than fifty years have passed since that day  and the Internet has gone from an experimental  project supported by the US army to a strategic  infrastructure that supports our entire society.  It is no exaggeration to say that our is  the “internet civilization”, a tool that has  transformed everything: the way we communicate,  work, shop, inform ourselves. Even the way we fall  in love. The digital revolution of the network has  embraced every social sphere of the human being,  spreading around the world since 1996 and passing  from telephone networks to 56k – which struggled  to open a normal web page – up to 5G in mobility,  which will allow a surgeon to operate remotely  by maneuvering via the Internet the robot  that will physically perform the operation.In 25 years, the internet has gone from being a  technology that according to some would go out  of fashion in a short time to being the backbone  of any social activity. According to Toby Negrin  of the Wikimedia Foundation, the Internet  is only at the beginning of its evolution.  But if the evolution of the network is still in  its infancy and its maturity is still to come,  how will the online world look like in the  coming decades? All experts agree on one thing:  one of the main drivers of the next evolution  of the Internet will be augmented reality. This  technology capable of superimposing the digital  world on the physical one certainly represents  the next great technological frontier. Imagine  getting the GPS directions directly superimposed  on the asphalt, seeing the most important  information relating to the monuments of the  city you are visiting in the form of digital  cartoons integrated into the monument itself,  being able to preview how a piece of furniture  would look in your home. All this by not framing  what surrounds us with the smartphone, but by  viewing it through the augmented reality viewers  that the most important tech giants are working on  today: from Apple to Facebook (without forgetting  those who have already implemented these tools on  a professional level such as Google or Microsoft).  Do you feel excited about these new  technologies? Write it in the comments!We are just at the beginning: in the next  few years these viewers – which today appear  as bulky headsets not at all suitable for  everyday use – will become more and more  similar to normal glasses, which we will wear  in the morning and on which all the information  we are today will flow get used to having on your  smartphone: notifications from social networks,  emails, job updates and so on. All superimposed  – or integrated – with the physical world,  thus inserting itself without  friction within our daily activities.  Where today, to enter an online world, we  have to put ourselves in front of a computer  or take out the smartphone, in the future the  internet will be directly in front of our eyes:  our basic condition will be to be connected to the  network. All this, according to the most ambitious  projects, will become reality in the next five  years and normality in about a decade. But in the  research laboratories of giants like Samsung and  Apple, the next step is already being worked on:  smart contact lenses, which will definitively  integrate the internet into the human body.What will the world we live  in at that point be like?  First of all, the distinction already overcome  today between the online and offline world,  between physical reality and digital reality, will  be devoid of any sense: we will not live in two  separate environments, but in a single ecosystem  in which the digital world will be merged into  the physical world and where all the daily tasks  and duties will be done online. Going “offline”  will mean more than anything else finding  a refuge to disconnect for a few minutes.According to Judith Donath of Harvard, “within a  quarter of a century, the way we use the internet  today will be considered archaically clumsy. We  will no longer have keyboards, mice, or screens”.  The world that stands out in front of us will  be a mix of physical and virtual and sometimes  we will no longer even be able to understand  where one ends and the other begins (and we won’t  even be interested in understanding it). We will  interact digitally with the physical environment,  observe advertising posters tailored to meet  our tastes, we will recognize our Facebook  contacts because they will digitally carry a  label with their name and friends in common.Probably in the future we will be able to  communicate directly with robots and other  machines through brain-machine interfaces  inserted directly into the brain to be able  to collect signals from nerve cells, but there  are difficulties related to the relatively short  life of such devices. Part of the problem  is mechanical: an implant that moves even  a millimeter can become ineffective; another  part of the problem is biological: the implant  must be non-toxic and biocompatible, so as not  to provoke an immune reaction. It must also be  small enough to be completely enclosed within  the skull and must have low energy consumption.Based on decades of research in non-human  primates, John P. Donoghue, Leigh R. Hochberg  and their colleagues at Brown University have  created a system that can decode neural signals  and control robotic devices with thought. A small  chip, studded with about 100 needle-like cables,  is inserted into the part of the neocortex  that controls movement; the motor signals are  powered by a computer which decodes them and  distributes them to external robotic devices.  In a study published by researchers at Brown  University in Nature, the results were shown  on two patients paralyzed for some time due to a  stroke, a 58-year-old woman and a 66-year-old man;  notably, the woman was able to reach out and sip  a drink on her own for the first time in nearly  15 years. The safety and feasibility of this  brain-computer interface, called BrainGate, is  now being evaluated, intended to put robotics and  innovative technologies under the direct control  of the human mind. Would you like to have a brain-  machine interface? Write it in the comments!With chips implanted in our brains, we  will also be able to directly carry out  some activities that today we delegate to our  smartphones: for example, turn on the lights  or adjust the temperature of the radiator, or  set the washing program of the washing machine.“Be sure to join the Channel! Leave us a like  and click on the bell, you will help us to make products of ever higher quality! ” What will come next? The more remote future of the  internet could be marked by the so-called neural  networks that startups like Neuralink, founded by  Elon Musk, are working on. An artificial neural  network is a computational model composed of  artificial “neurons”, loosely inspired by the  simplification of a biological neural network.  These mathematical models are too simple to gain  an understanding of biological neural networks,  but are used to attempt to solve artificial  intelligence engineering problems such as  those that arise in various technological  fields (in electronics, computer science,  simulation, and other disciplines). Such  neural network models are made up of a  group of information interconnections made  up of artificial neurons. In most cases,  an artificial neural network is an adaptive system  that changes its structure based on external or  internal information flowing through the  network itself during the learning phase.In practical terms, neural networks are  non-linear structures of statistical data  organized as modeling tools.  They can be used to simulate  complex relationships between inputs and outputs  that other analytic functions cannot represent.An artificial neural network receives external  signals on a layer of input nodes (processing  units), each of which is connected with numerous  internal nodes, organized in several layers. Each  node processes the received signals and  transmits the result to subsequent nodes.Thanks to the great computing power of neural  networks, augmented reality will be projected  from our eyes, we will be able to carry out  online searches as today we bring back a memory,  we will communicate with distant  people in a form of digital telepathy.  As Lee Rainie, director of internet  research at the Pew Research Center said,  “from a certain point of view the internet  will be preloaded in our consciousness.”  Would you use a neural network? For  which purpose? Write it in the comments!Neuralink’s goal is to insert the  internet into the human brain,  connecting the mind to the network via and the  chips physically integrated inside the skull,  which will translate thoughts into  online searches. But how does it work?The idea of a neural interface (Brain Computer  Interface, BCI), or the development of tools  capable of creating direct communication  between our nervous system and the outside,  bypassing our corporeality, is certainly not new  in the field of neuroscience. Its history has its  roots almost a century ago, in 1924, when Hans  Berger discovered the existence of electrical  activity in the brain thanks to a simple,  inexpensive and minimally invasive instrument:  the electroencephalogram (EEG). It was not many  decades before the US launched a study program  on the use of the EEG to understand the  communication mechanisms of the brain.  In 1976 this interest was met with the  demonstration that it was possible to control a  cursor on a screen using visual evoked potentials,  an electrical response of the visual cortex  to the appearance of a visual stimulus.  Thanks to its incredible potential,  primarily aimed at improving the autonomy of  patients with motor disabilities but extendable  to cognitive enhancement and non-clinical purposes  (playful and home automation, for example),  research on neural interfaces has literally  exploded, giving results that have largely  satisfied the hopes placed there. The  signal obtained is first of all amplified,  cleaned and decoded using algorithms designed to  classify the various information collected. Once  decoded, the signal is finally transformed into a  command that can be read by the device we want to  control, such as a prosthesis, a robot, a cursor  on the screen or a muscle of the BCI wearer.The quality of the signal obtained with  this type of methods must, however,  deal with the use of electrodes with  limited versatility and duration.  Constructed with rigid metals or semiconductors  and assembled together in a fixed geometry,  these electrodes in fact generate frequent  potentially dangerous immune reactions and are  underperforming in the long term. The ideal  candidates to overcome the limitations of  rigid electrodes are those in polymer, with  greater biocompatibility and performance, but  whose size and flexibility make their insertion  practically impossible through current procedures.All this, however, will have a price to pay: what  will become of privacy when our every behavior and  movement is recorded, because it is carried out  within the network? Who and how will handle this  highly sensitive information? How can we escape  the digital gaze if each of us will circulate  with cameras connected directly to the eyes?  And what will be the risks in terms of security,  linked to the possibility of directly hacking the  connected elements present in our brain? Will our  brain be able to manage this immense amount  of information that all of a sudden will swoop  down on it? Or will he go crazy? And finally, if  authoritarian governments are already learning to  perfection to exploit the internet to have ever  more rigid control over society, what will happen  when the possibilities in terms of surveillance,  control, knowledge and the ability to influence  our behavior increase dramatically exponential?  Can these technologies alter decision making,  or affect our emotions? Then there are problems  linked to the inequalities that will arise between  those who can afford these technologies  and those who will be excluded from them.  The control over the risk-free  effectiveness of these new technologies,  therefore safety, should be ensured  upstream by institutional controls,  which should also monitor the truthfulness of the  messages conveyed by the media to the population.“Be sure to join the Channel!  Leave us a like and click on  the bell, you will help us to make products of ever higher quality! “

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